Lung neuroendocrine neoplasms (LNENs) are lesions originating from diffuse endocrine cells within the bronchial walls and lung parenchyma. In recent years, there have been significant advances in the diagnosis and therapy of these neoplasms. This paper reviews recent developments in these areas, focusing on the latest research and treatment strategies. In the context of diagnosis, new imaging technologies including high-resolution computed tomography (CT), high-resolution and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging, are providing more precise information on tumor spread and evaluation of metabolic activity. Advances in the field of molecular biomarkers allow a more personalized approach to the diagnosis of LNENs. In the therapeutic area, new targeted drugs and immunotherapy are showing promise in the treatment of LNENs. The development of molecular therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and somatostatin analogs, is opening up new treatment perspectives, increasing the efficacy of therapy, and improving patient quality of life. The paper also focuses on important research directions and clinical advances in the diagnosis and therapy of LNENs, presenting the current state of knowledge about these rare tumors. The conclusions aim to provide a synthetic view of the latest developments in the field, encouraging further research and improving treatment strategies for LNENs.