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Clinical Cancer Investigation Journal
ARTICLE
Year: 2020   |   Volume: 9   |   Issue: 4   |   Page: 107-109     View issue

Waterpipe smoking and women's health: From pregnancy to breast cancer


Ishita Gupta, Anas Ashour, Mahmoud Haik, Khaled Sadek, Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa
Abstract

Today, smoking tobacco in waterpipes has increased in popularity worldwide; this is largely based on the belief that waterpipe smoking (WPS) is less harmful than cigarette smoking. On the other hand, it was recently pointed out that WPS can have a dramatic effect on women's health from pregnancy to breast cancer initiation and/or progression through targeting two important members of cadherin genes, cadherin-6 type 2 and E-cadherin, which are important regulators of cell migration and invasion. More significantly, it is noted that the deregulation of these two genes as well as others can occur through the Erk1/Erk2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Herein, we discuss, for the first time, the outcome of WPS and its mechanism on the embryo, at the early stage of its development, as well as breast cancer progression.

Cite this article
Vancouver
Gupta I, Ashour A, Haik M, Sadek K, Al Moustafa A. Waterpipe smoking and women's health: From pregnancy to breast cancer. Clin Cancer Investig J. 2020;9(4):107-9. https://doi.org/10.4103/ccij.ccij_91_20
APA
Gupta, I., Ashour, A., Haik, M., Sadek, K., & Al Moustafa, A. (2020). Waterpipe smoking and women's health: From pregnancy to breast cancer. Clinical Cancer Investigation Journal, 9(4),107-109. https://doi.org/10.4103/ccij.ccij_91_20

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